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A/An:: The usage depends on the sound of the word that "a" or "an" is placed in front of.  The letter "a" should be placed before all words that start with a consonant sound except the silent "h" and a vowel with a consonant & vowel sound combination.  The word "an" belongs in front of every vowel sound.  This usage is abused on the Internet in an enormous way.
Examples:
"a": a toy, a situation, a musical event, a choice, a horn ("h" is not silent), a utility pole (consonant & vowel sound combination)
"an": an honorary member (silent "h"), an apple, an embryo

Affect/Effect: I'm still confused by the correct usage of affect and effect.  When I have a need to use one of them, I look it up. 
Affect, always a verb, means to influence, to assume, to pretend, to be given to.
Example of influence: The book will affect my thoughts about holiday decorating.                  
Effect can be both a verb and a noun.  The noun version expresses a result.  The verb version means to cause or bring about.
Example of result (noun): This paper shows the effects of the investigation?
Example of cause (verb): An overthrow will effect a tyranny in that country.

Allude/Elude: 
allude means to refer indirectly or casually and is followed by the word "to."
elude means to slip away from; to dodge.

Allusion, delusion, elusion, illusion:
Allusion is an indirect reference or mention.  Example: "Sue made an allusion to the main character in a novel she was reading."
Delusion is a false belief, usually a result of self-deception.  Example: "Sue is experiencing delusions of a life as a royal princess."
Elusion (rarely used word) means an escape.  Example: "Your absence is an elusion of your obligations to the firm."
Illusion (related in meaning to delusion but less likely to be as harmful or serious) refers to a false mental image or idea.  Example: "Sue has illusions that she is a supermodel."

Antagonist/Protagonist: 
Antagonist is someone who opposes another in a fight.  Example: "The two friends became antagonists on the tennis court."  In literature the antagonist is the opponent of the main character.
Protagonist means first combatant.  A protagonist is the principal or central character against whom an antagonist will conduct a fight.

Capital/Capitol: Capital can be all meanings except a building.  Example: "Sue raised the capital to build a new pool."  Capitol is a building.  Example: "We drove through the capital, passed the state capitol, and got back onto the freeway."

Climactic/Climatic: 
Climactic derives from climax, the final and most forceful one of a series of ideas or events.  Example:  "The exploding bridge was the climactic scene of the movie."
Climatic refers to weather.  Example: "Sue prefers the climatic features of Miami."

Couldn't scarcely/Couldn't hardly: calls for dropping the negative part of the phrase.
He could hardly drive through the blizzard.

Could of: as well as may of, might of, should of, and would of are illiteracies.  Example of correction: I could have done the job alone.

Exceptionable/Exceptional: 
Exceptionable means objectionable.
Exceptional means extraordinary, uncommon, unusual.

Indict/Indite:
Indict means to accuse or charge with a crime.
Indite means to write, compose.

Ingenious/Ingenuous/Naive:
Ingenious means inventive, resourceful, talented, imaginative.
Ingenuous means naive, frank, unsophisticated, artless.
Naive means the same as ingenuous but implies amusement to the user but to the one implied.

Inhuman/Unhuman:
Inhuman means cruel; brutal; lacking normal human compassion, pity, sympathy, and kindness.
Unhuman means not human; without the characteristics of human beings.     

Laid/Lain:
Laid is the past tense and past participle of lay - to set down; to put or place in a horizontal position.  Example: Sue laid her blouse on the bed.
Lain is the past participle of lie - to be in a prostrate position.  Example: My pup has lain down by my feet every night this week.

Largely/Chiefly:
Largely means to a great extent; generally; in great part.  Example: The demonstration was largely done to express the examples of the author.
Chiefly means principally; mainly; essentially.  Example: The intentions are chiefly good ones.

Lay/Lie:
Lay means to place and requires an object.  Lay down the law; lay of the land; lay down one's life; etc..
Lie means to recline and does not require an object.  Lie down on the job; lie low; take lying down; etc..

Leave/Let are interchangeable only when accompanied by the word "alone."  Example: leave me alone.
Leave means to go away from; to cause to remain.
Let means to allow; to permit; to cause.

More easy - You should use the word "easier" and drop the word "more."

More better  - You should use the word "better" and drop the word "more." 

Set/Sit:
Set means to put; to place.  Example: Would you set the papers on that desk?
Sit means to place oneself.  Example: I'd love to sit next to you.

Shall/Will:
Use shall in the first person and will in the second and third person to express future time.  I (we) shall talk to you soon.  You (he, they) will go soon.  
Use will in the first person and shall in the second and third person to express c
ommand or determination.  I will enter the room no matter what you tell me.  You shall (must) go.

Theirs versus his/her:
It doesn't make sense to announce that someone is going to their house.  The word "someone" is singular and the word "their" is plural.  
The proper way to say it is:  someone is going to his/her house.  Or if one already knows the sex of the person being talked about, you may limit it to either his or her.

Whether or not:  Usually the or not isn't necessary, however it is necessary when saying: I will go whether you like it or not.  A way to determine whether "or not" is needed, substitute the word "if" for the word "whether" and if the "if" causes a different meaning, then "or not" is needed.

Who/Whom: Use who (or whoever) as the subject of a verb or as a predicate pronoun and use whom (whomever) as the object of a verb or preposition.

Who's/Whose:
Who's is a shortcut for who is.
Whose is the possessive case of the pr
onoun who.

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